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Informal standard                                             M. Nilsson
Document: id3v2.3.0.txt                                3rd February 1999


                           ID3 tag version 2.3.0

Status of this document

   This document is an informal standard and replaces the ID3v2.2.0
   standard [ID3v2]. The informal standard is released so that
   implementors could have a set standard before a formal standard is
   set. The formal standard will use another version or revision number
   if not identical to what is described in this document. The contents
   in this document may change for clarifications but never for added or
   altered functionallity.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited.


Abstract

   This document describes the ID3v2.3.0, which is a more developed
   version of the ID3v2 informal standard [ID3v2] (version 2.2.0),
   evolved from the ID3 tagging system. The ID3v2 offers a flexible way
   of storing information about an audio file within itself to determine
   its origin and contents. The information may be technical
   information, such as equalisation curves, as well as related meta
   information, such as title, performer, copyright etc.


1.   Table of contents

   2.   Conventions in this document
   3.   ID3v2 overview
     3.1.   ID3v2 header
     3.2.   ID3v2 extended header
     3.3.   ID3v2 frames overview
       3.3.1.   Frame header flags
       3.3.2.   Default flags
   4.   Declared ID3v2 frames
     4.1.   Unique file identifier
     4.2.   Text information frames
       4.2.1.   Text information frames - details
       4.2.2.   User defined text information frame
     4.3.   URL link frames
       4.3.1.   URL link frames - details
       4.3.2.   User defined URL link frame
     4.4.   Involved people list
     4.5.   Music CD Identifier
     4.6.   Event timing codes
     4.7.   MPEG location lookup table
     4.8.   Synced tempo codes
     4.9.   Unsychronised lyrics/text transcription
     4.10.  Synchronised lyrics/text
     4.11.  Comments
     4.12.  Relative volume adjustment
     4.13.  Equalisation
     4.14.  Reverb
     4.15.  Attached picture
     4.16.  General encapsulated object
     4.17.  Play counter
     4.18.  Popularimeter
     4.19.  Recommended buffer size
     4.20.  Audio encryption
     4.21.  Linked information
     4.22.  Position synchronisation frame
     4.23.  Terms of use
     4.24.  Ownership frame
     4.25.  Commercial frame
     4.26.  Encryption method registration
     4.27.  Group identification registration
         4.28.  Private frame
   5.   The 'unsynchronisation scheme'
   6.   Copyright
   7.   References
   8.   Appendix
     A.   Appendix A - Genre List from ID3v1
   9.   Author's Address


2.   Conventions in this document

   In the examples, text within "" is a text string exactly as it
   appears in a file. Numbers preceded with $ are hexadecimal and
   numbers preceded with % are binary. $xx is used to indicate a byte
   with unknown content. %x is used to indicate a bit with unknown
   content. The most significant bit (MSB) of a byte is called 'bit 7'
   and the least significant bit (LSB) is called 'bit 0'.

   A tag is the whole tag described in this document. A frame is a block
   of information in the tag. The tag consists of a header, frames and
   optional padding. A field is a piece of information; one value, a
   string etc. A numeric string is a string that consists of the
   characters 0-9 only.


3.   ID3v2 overview

   The two biggest design goals were to be able to implement ID3v2
   without disturbing old software too much and that ID3v2 should be
   as flexible and expandable as possible.

   The first criterion is met by the simple fact that the MPEG [MPEG]
   decoding software uses a syncsignal, embedded in the audiostream, to
   'lock on to' the audio. Since the ID3v2 tag doesn't contain a valid
   syncsignal, no software will attempt to play the tag. If, for any
   reason, coincidence make a syncsignal appear within the tag it will
   be taken care of by the 'unsynchronisation scheme' described in
   section 5.

   The second criterion has made a more noticeable impact on the design
   of the ID3v2 tag. It is constructed as a container for several
   information blocks, called frames, whose format need not be known to
   the software that encounters them. At the start of every frame there
   is an identifier that explains the frames' format and content, and a
   size descriptor that allows software to skip unknown frames.

   If a total revision of the ID3v2 tag should be needed, there is a
   version number and a size descriptor in the ID3v2 header.

   The ID3 tag described in this document is mainly targeted at files
   encoded with MPEG-1/2 layer I, MPEG-1/2 layer II, MPEG-1/2 layer III
   and MPEG-2.5, but may work with other types of encoded audio.

   The bitorder in ID3v2 is most significant bit first (MSB). The
   byteorder in multibyte numbers is most significant byte first (e.g.
   $12345678 would be encoded $12 34 56 78).

   It is permitted to include padding after all the final frame (at the
   end of the ID3 tag), making the size of all the frames together
   smaller than the size given in the head of the tag. A possible
   purpose of this padding is to allow for adding a few additional
   frames or enlarge existing frames within the tag without having to
   rewrite the entire file. The value of the padding bytes must be $00.


3.1.   ID3v2 header

   The ID3v2 tag header, which should be the first information in the
   file, is 10 bytes as follows:

     ID3v2/file identifier      "ID3"
     ID3v2 version              $03 00
     ID3v2 flags                %abc00000
     ID3v2 size             4 * %0xxxxxxx

   The first three bytes of the tag are always "ID3" to indicate that
   this is an ID3v2 tag, directly followed by the two version bytes. The
   first byte of ID3v2 version is it's major version, while the second
   byte is its revision number. In this case this is ID3v2.3.0. All
   revisions are backwards compatible while major versions are not. If
   software with ID3v2.2.0 and below support should encounter version
   three or higher it should simply ignore the whole tag. Version and
   revision will never be $FF.

   The version is followed by one the ID3v2 flags field, of which
   currently only three flags are used.


   a - Unsynchronisation

     Bit 7 in the 'ID3v2 flags' indicates whether or not
     unsynchronisation is used (see section 5 for details); a set bit
     indicates usage.


   b - Extended header

     The second bit (bit 6) indicates whether or not the header is
     followed by an extended header. The extended header is described in
     section 3.2.


   c - Experimental indicator

     The third bit (bit 5) should be used as an 'experimental
     indicator'. This flag should always be set when the tag is in an
     experimental stage.

   All the other flags should be cleared. If one of these undefined
   flags are set that might mean that the tag is not readable for a
   parser that does not know the flags function.

   The ID3v2 tag size is encoded with four bytes where the most
   significant bit (bit 7) is set to zero in every byte, making a total
   of 28 bits. The zeroed bits are ignored, so a 257 bytes long tag is
   represented as $00 00 02 01.

   The ID3v2 tag size is the size of the complete tag after
   unsychronisation, including padding, excluding the header but not
   excluding the extended header (total tag size - 10). Only 28 bits
   (representing up to 256MB) are used in the size description to avoid
   the introducuction of 'false syncsignals'.

   An ID3v2 tag can be detected with the following pattern:
     $49 44 33 yy yy xx zz zz zz zz
   Where yy is less than $FF, xx is the 'flags' byte and zz is less than
   $80.


3.2.   ID3v2 extended header

   The extended header contains information that is not vital to the
   correct parsing of the tag information, hence the extended header is
   optional.

     Extended header size   $xx xx xx xx
     Extended Flags         $xx xx
     Size of padding        $xx xx xx xx

   Where the 'Extended header size', currently 6 or 10 bytes, excludes
   itself. The 'Size of padding' is simply the total tag size excluding
   the frames and the headers, in other words the padding. The extended
   header is considered separate from the header proper, and as such is
   subject to unsynchronisation.

   The extended flags are a secondary flag set which describes further
   attributes of the tag. These attributes are currently defined as
   follows

     %x0000000 00000000


   x - CRC data present

     If this flag is set four bytes of CRC-32 data is appended to the
     extended header. The CRC should be calculated before
     unsynchronisation on the data between the extended header and the
     padding, i.e. the frames and only the frames.

        Total frame CRC        $xx xx xx xx


3.3.   ID3v2 frame overview

   As the tag consists of a tag header and a tag body with one or more
   frames, all the frames consists of a frame header followed by one or
   more fields containing the actual information. The layout of the
   frame header:

     Frame ID   $xx xx xx xx  (four characters)
     Size       $xx xx xx xx
     Flags      $xx xx

   The frame ID made out of the characters capital A-Z and 0-9.
   Identifiers beginning with "X", "Y" and "Z" are for experimental use
   and free for everyone to use, without the need to set the
   experimental bit in the tag header. Have in mind that someone else
   might have used the same identifier as you. All other identifiers are
   either used or reserved for future use.

   The frame ID is followed by a size descriptor, making a total header
   size of ten bytes in every frame. The size is calculated as frame
   size excluding frame header (frame size - 10).

   In the frame header the size descriptor is followed by two flags
   bytes. These flags are described in section 3.3.1.

   There is no fixed order of the frames' appearance in the tag,
   although it is desired that the frames are arranged in order of
   significance concerning the recognition of the file. An example of
   such order: UFID, TIT2, MCDI, TRCK ...

   A tag must contain at least one frame. A frame must be at least 1
   byte big, excluding the header.

   If nothing else is said a string is represented as ISO-8859-1
   [ISO-8859-1] characters in the range $20 - $FF. Such strings are
   represented as <text string>, or <full text string> if newlines are
   allowed, in the frame descriptions. All Unicode strings [UNICODE] use
   16-bit unicode 2.0 (ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993, UCS-2). Unicode strings
   must begin with the Unicode BOM ($FF FE or $FE FF) to identify the
   byte order.

   All numeric strings and URLs [URL] are always encoded as ISO-8859-1.
   Terminated strings are terminated with $00 if encoded with ISO-8859-1
   and $00 00 if encoded as unicode. If nothing else is said newline
   character is forbidden. In ISO-8859-1 a new line is represented, when
   allowed, with $0A only. Frames that allow different types of text
   encoding have a text encoding description byte directly after the
   frame size. If ISO-8859-1 is used this byte should be $00, if Unicode
   is used it should be $01. Strings dependent on encoding is
   represented as <text string according to encoding>, or <full text
   string according to encoding> if newlines are allowed.  Any empty
   Unicode strings which are NULL-terminated may have the Unicode BOM
   followed by a Unicode NULL ($FF FE 00 00 or $FE FF 00 00).

   The three byte language field is used to describe the language of the
   frame's content, according to ISO-639-2 [ISO-639-2].

   All URLs [URL] may be relative, e.g. "picture.png", "../doc.txt".

   If a frame is longer than it should be, e.g. having more fields than
   specified in this document, that indicates that additions to the
   frame have been made in a later version of the ID3v2 standard. This
   is reflected by the revision number in the header of the tag.


3.3.1.   Frame header flags

   In the frame header the size descriptor is followed by two flags
   bytes. All unused flags must be cleared. The first byte is for
   'status messages' and the second byte is for encoding purposes. If an
   unknown flag is set in the first byte the frame may not be changed
   without the bit cleared. If an unknown flag is set in the second byte
   it is likely to not be readable. The flags field is defined as
   follows.

     %abc00000 %ijk00000


   a - Tag alter preservation

     This flag tells the software what to do with this frame if it is
     unknown and the tag is altered in any way. This applies to all
     kinds of alterations, including adding more padding and reordering
     the frames.

     0     Frame should be preserved.
     1     Frame should be discarded.


   b - File alter preservation

     This flag tells the software what to do with this frame if it is
     unknown and the file, excluding the tag, is altered. This does not
     apply when the audio is completely replaced with other audio data.

     0     Frame should be preserved.
     1     Frame should be discarded.


   c - Read only

      This flag, if set, tells the software that the contents of this
      frame is intended to be read only. Changing the contents might
      break something, e.g. a signature. If the contents are changed,
      without knowledge in why the frame was flagged read only and
      without taking the proper means to compensate, e.g. recalculating
      the signature, the bit should be cleared.


   i - Compression

      This flag indicates whether or not the frame is compressed.

      0     Frame is not compressed.
      1     Frame is compressed using zlib [zlib] with 4 bytes for
            'decompressed size' appended to the frame header.


   j - Encryption

      This flag indicates wether or not the frame is enrypted. If set
      one byte indicating with which method it was encrypted will be
      appended to the frame header. See section 4.26. for more
      information about encryption method registration.

      0     Frame is not encrypted.
      1     Frame is encrypted.


   k - Grouping identity

      This flag indicates whether or not this frame belongs in a group
      with other frames. If set a group identifier byte is added to the
      frame header. Every frame with the same group identifier belongs
      to the same group.

      0     Frame does not contain group information
      1     Frame contains group information


   Some flags indicates that the frame header is extended with
   additional information. This information will be added to the frame
   header in the same order as the flags indicating the additions. I.e.
   the four bytes of decompressed size will preceed the encryption
   method byte. These additions to the frame header, while not included
   in the frame header size but are included in the 'frame size' field,
   are not subject to encryption or compression.


3.3.2.   Default flags

   The default settings for the frames described in this document can be
   divided into the following classes. The flags may be set differently
   if found more suitable by the software.

    1. Discarded if tag is altered, discarded if file is altered.

       None.

    2. Discarded if tag is altered, preserved if file is altered.

       None.

    3. Preserved if tag is altered, discarded if file is altered.

       AENC, ETCO, EQUA, MLLT, POSS, SYLT, SYTC, RVAD, TENC, TLEN, TSIZ

    4. Preserved if tag is altered, preserved if file is altered.

       The rest of the frames.


4.   Declared ID3v2 frames

   The following frames are declared in this draft.

  4.21  AENC Audio encryption
  4.15  APIC Attached picture

  4.11  COMM Comments
  4.25  COMR Commercial frame

  4.26  ENCR Encryption method registration
  4.13  EQUA Equalization
  4.6   ETCO Event timing codes

  4.16  GEOB General encapsulated object
  4.27  GRID Group identification registration

  4.4   IPLS Involved people list

  4.21  LINK Linked information

  4.5   MCDI Music CD identifier
  4.7   MLLT MPEG location lookup table

  4.24  OWNE Ownership frame

  4.28. PRIV Private frame
  4.17  PCNT Play counter
  4.18  POPM Popularimeter
  4.22  POSS Position synchronisation frame

  4.19  RBUF Recommended buffer size
  4.12  RVAD Relative volume adjustment
  4.14  RVRB Reverb

  4.10  SYLT Synchronized lyric/text
  4.8   SYTC Synchronized tempo codes

  4.2.1 TALB Album/Movie/Show title
  4.2.1 TBPM BPM (beats per minute)
  4.2.1 TCOM Composer
  4.2.1 TCON Content type
  4.2.1 TCOP Copyright message
  4.2.1 TDAT Date
  4.2.1 TDLY Playlist delay
  4.2.1 TENC Encoded by
  4.2.1 TEXT Lyricist/Text writer
  4.2.1 TFLT File type
  4.2.1 TIME Time
  4.2.1 TIT1 Content group description
  4.2.1 TIT2 Title/songname/content description
  4.2.1 TIT3 Subtitle/Description refinement
  4.2.1 TKEY Initial key
  4.2.1 TLAN Language(s)
  4.2.1 TLEN Length
  4.2.1 TMED Media type
  4.2.1 TOAL Original album/movie/show title
  4.2.1 TOFN Original filename
  4.2.1 TOLY Original lyricist(s)/text writer(s)
  4.2.1 TOPE Original artist(s)/performer(s)
  4.2.1 TORY Original release year
  4.2.1 TOWN File owner/licensee
  4.2.1 TPE1 Lead performer(s)/Soloist(s)
  4.2.1 TPE2 Band/orchestra/accompaniment
  4.2.1 TPE3 Conductor/performer refinement
  4.2.1 TPE4 Interpreted, remixed, or otherwise modified by
  4.2.1 TPOS Part of a set
  4.2.1 TPUB Publisher
  4.2.1 TRCK Track number/Position in set
  4.2.1 TRDA Recording dates
  4.2.1 TRSN Internet radio station name
  4.2.1 TRSO Internet radio station owner
  4.2.1 TSIZ Size
  4.2.1 TSRC ISRC (international standard recording code)
  4.2.1 TSSE Software/Hardware and settings used for encoding
  4.2.1 TYER Year
  4.2.2 TXXX User defined text information frame

  4.1   UFID Unique file identifier
  4.23  USER Terms of use
  4.9   USLT Unsychronized lyric/text transcription

  4.3.1 WCOM Commercial information
  4.3.1 WCOP Copyright/Legal information
  4.3.1 WOAF Official audio file webpage
  4.3.1 WOAR Official artist/performer webpage
  4.3.1 WOAS Official audio source webpage
  4.3.1 WORS Official internet radio station homepage
  4.3.1 WPAY Payment
  4.3.1 WPUB Publishers official webpage
  4.3.2 WXXX User defined URL link frame


4.1.   Unique file identifier

   This frame's purpose is to be able to identify the audio file in a
   database that may contain more information relevant to the content.
   Since standardisation of such a database is beyond this document, all
   frames begin with a null-terminated string with a URL [URL]
   containing an email address, or a link to a location where an email
   address can be found, that belongs to the organisation responsible
   for this specific database implementation. Questions regarding the
   database should be sent to the indicated email address. The URL
   should not be used for the actual database queries. The string
   "http://www.id3.org/dummy/ufid.html" should be used for tests.
   Software that isn't told otherwise may safely remove such frames. The
   'Owner identifier' must be non-empty (more than just a termination).
   The 'Owner identifier' is then followed by the actual identifier,
   which may be up to 64 bytes. There may be more than one "UFID" frame
   in a tag, but only one with the same 'Owner identifier'.

     <Header for 'Unique file identifier', ID: "UFID">
     Owner identifier        <text string> $00
     Identifier              <up to 64 bytes binary data>


4.2.   Text information frames

   The text information frames are the most important frames, containing
   information like artist, album and more. There may only be one text
   information frame of its kind in an tag. If the textstring is
   followed by a termination ($00 (00)) all the following information
   should be ignored and not be displayed. All text frame identifiers
   begin with "T". Only text frame identifiers begin with "T", with the
   exception of the "TXXX" frame. All the text information frames have
   the following format:

     <Header for 'Text information frame', ID: "T000" - "TZZZ",
     excluding "TXXX" described in 4.2.2.>
     Text encoding                $xx
     Information                  <text string according to encoding>


4.2.1.   Text information frames - details

  TALB
   The 'Album/Movie/Show title' frame is intended for the title of the
   recording(/source of sound) which the audio in the file is taken
   from.

  TBPM
   The 'BPM' frame contains the number of beats per minute in the
   mainpart of the audio. The BPM is an integer and represented as a
   numerical string.

  TCOM
   The 'Composer(s)' frame is intended for the name of the composer(s).
   They are seperated with the "/" character.

  TCON
   The 'Content type', which previously was stored as a one byte numeric
   value only, is now a numeric string. You may use one or several of
   the types as ID3v1.1 did or, since the category list would be
   impossible to maintain with accurate and up to date categories,
   define your own.

   References to the ID3v1 genres can be made by, as first byte, enter
   "(" followed by a number from the genres list (appendix A.) and
   ended with a ")" character. This is optionally followed by a
   refinement, e.g. "(21)" or "(4)Eurodisco". Several references can be
   made in the same frame, e.g. "(51)(39)". If the refinement should
   begin with a "(" character it should be replaced with "((", e.g. "((I
   can figure out any genre)" or "(55)((I think...)". The following new
   content types is defined in ID3v2 and is implemented in the same way
   as the numerig content types, e.g. "(RX)".

     RX  Remix
     CR  Cover

  TCOP
   The 'Copyright message' frame, which must begin with a year and a
   space character (making five characters), is intended for the
   copyright holder of the original sound, not the audio file itself.
   The absence of this frame means only that the copyright information
   is unavailable or has been removed, and must not be interpreted to
   mean that the sound is public domain. Every time this field is
   displayed the field must be preceded with "Copyright " (C) " ", where
   (C) is one character showing a C in a circle.

  TDAT
   The 'Date' frame is a numeric string in the DDMM format containing
   the date for the recording. This field is always four characters
   long.

  TDLY
   The 'Playlist delay' defines the numbers of milliseconds of silence
   between every song in a playlist. The player should use the "ETC"
   frame, if present, to skip initial silence and silence at the end of
   the audio to match the 'Playlist delay' time. The time is represented
   as a numeric string.

  TENC
   The 'Encoded by' frame contains the name of the person or
   organisation that encoded the audio file. This field may contain a
   copyright message, if the audio file also is copyrighted by the
   encoder.

  TEXT
   The 'Lyricist(s)/Text writer(s)' frame is intended for the writer(s)
   of the text or lyrics in the recording. They are seperated with the
   "/" character.

  TFLT
   The 'File type' frame indicates which type of audio this tag defines.
   The following type and refinements are defined:

     MPG    MPEG Audio
       /1     MPEG 1/2 layer I
       /2     MPEG 1/2 layer II
       /3     MPEG 1/2 layer III
       /2.5   MPEG 2.5
       /AAC   Advanced audio compression
     VQF    Transform-domain Weighted Interleave Vector Quantization
     PCM    Pulse Code Modulated audio

   but other types may be used, not for these types though. This is used
   in a similar way to the predefined types in the "TMED" frame, but
   without parentheses. If this frame is not present audio type is
   assumed to be "MPG".

  TIME
   The 'Time' frame is a numeric string in the HHMM format containing
   the time for the recording. This field is always four characters
   long.

  TIT1
   The 'Content group description' frame is used if the sound belongs to
   a larger category of sounds/music. For example, classical music is
   often sorted in different musical sections (e.g. "Piano Concerto",
   "Weather - Hurricane").

  TIT2
   The 'Title/Songname/Content description' frame is the actual name of
   the piece (e.g. "Adagio", "Hurricane Donna").

  TIT3
   The 'Subtitle/Description refinement' frame is used for information
   directly related to the contents title (e.g. "Op. 16" or "Performed
   live at Wembley").

  TKEY
   The 'Initial key' frame contains the musical key in which the sound
   starts. It is represented as a string with a maximum length of three
   characters. The ground keys are represented with "A","B","C","D","E",
   "F" and "G" and halfkeys represented with "b" and "#". Minor is
   represented as "m". Example "Cbm". Off key is represented with an "o"
   only.

  TLAN
   The 'Language(s)' frame should contain the languages of the text or
   lyrics spoken or sung in the audio. The language is represented with
   three characters according to ISO-639-2. If more than one language is
   used in the text their language codes should follow according to
   their usage.

  TLEN

   The 'Length' frame contains the length of the audiofile in
   milliseconds, represented as a numeric string.

  TMED
   The 'Media type' frame describes from which media the sound
   originated. This may be a text string or a reference to the
   predefined media types found in the list below. References are made
   within "(" and ")" and are optionally followed by a text refinement,
   e.g. "(MC) with four channels". If a text refinement should begin
   with a "(" character it should be replaced with "((" in the same way
   as in the "TCO" frame. Predefined refinements is appended after the
   media type, e.g. "(CD/A)" or "(VID/PAL/VHS)".

    DIG    Other digital media
      /A    Analog transfer from media

    ANA    Other analog media
      /WAC  Wax cylinder
      /8CA  8-track tape cassette

    CD     CD
      /A    Analog transfer from media
      /DD   DDD
      /AD   ADD
      /AA   AAD

    LD     Laserdisc
      /A     Analog transfer from media

    TT     Turntable records
      /33    33.33 rpm
      /45    45 rpm
      /71    71.29 rpm
      /76    76.59 rpm
      /78    78.26 rpm
      /80    80 rpm

    MD     MiniDisc
      /A    Analog transfer from media

    DAT    DAT
      /A    Analog transfer from media
      /1    standard, 48 kHz/16 bits, linear
      /2    mode 2, 32 kHz/16 bits, linear
      /3    mode 3, 32 kHz/12 bits, nonlinear, low speed
      /4    mode 4, 32 kHz/12 bits, 4 channels
      /5    mode 5, 44.1 kHz/16 bits, linear
      /6    mode 6, 44.1 kHz/16 bits, 'wide track' play

    DCC    DCC
      /A    Analog transfer from media

    DVD    DVD
      /A    Analog transfer from media

    TV     Television
      /PAL    PAL
      /NTSC   NTSC
      /SECAM  SECAM

    VID    Video
      /PAL    PAL
      /NTSC   NTSC
      /SECAM  SECAM
      /VHS    VHS
      /SVHS   S-VHS
      /BETA   BETAMAX

    RAD    Radio
      /FM   FM
      /AM   AM
      /LW   LW
      /MW   MW

    TEL    Telephone
      /I    ISDN

    MC     MC (normal cassette)
      /4    4.75 cm/s (normal speed for a two sided cassette)
      /9    9.5 cm/s
      /I    Type I cassette (ferric/normal)
      /II   Type II cassette (chrome)
      /III  Type III cassette (ferric chrome)
      /IV   Type IV cassette (metal)

    REE    Reel
      /9    9.5 cm/s
      /19   19 cm/s
      /38   38 cm/s
      /76   76 cm/s
      /I    Type I cassette (ferric/normal)
      /II   Type II cassette (chrome)
      /III  Type III cassette (ferric chrome)
      /IV   Type IV cassette (metal)

  TOAL
   The 'Original album/movie/show title' frame is intended for the title
   of the original recording (or source of sound), if for example the
   music in the file should be a cover of a previously released song.

  TOFN
   The 'Original filename' frame contains the preferred filename for the
   file, since some media doesn't allow the desired length of the
   filename. The filename is case sensitive and includes its suffix.

  TOLY
   The 'Original lyricist(s)/text writer(s)' frame is intended for the
   text writer(s) of the original recording, if for example the music in
   the file should be a cover of a previously released song. The text
   writers are seperated with the "/" character.

  TOPE
   The 'Original artist(s)/performer(s)' frame is intended for the
   performer(s) of the original recording, if for example the music in
   the file should be a cover of a previously released song. The
   performers are seperated with the "/" character.

  TORY
   The 'Original release year' frame is intended for the year when the
   original recording, if for example the music in the file should be a
   cover of a previously released song, was released. The field is
   formatted as in the "TYER" frame.

  TOWN
   The 'File owner/licensee' frame contains the name of the owner or
   licensee of the file and it's contents.

  TPE1
   The 'Lead artist(s)/Lead performer(s)/Soloist(s)/Performing group' is
   used for the main artist(s). They are seperated with the "/"
   character.

  TPE2
   The 'Band/Orchestra/Accompaniment' frame is used for additional
   information about the performers in the recording.

  TPE3
   The 'Conductor' frame is used for the name of the conductor.

  TPE4
   The 'Interpreted, remixed, or otherwise modified by' frame contains
   more information about the people behind a remix and similar
   interpretations of another existing piece.

  TPOS
   The 'Part of a set' frame is a numeric string that describes which
   part of a set the audio came from. This frame is used if the source
   described in the "TALB" frame is divided into several mediums, e.g. a
   double CD. The value may be extended with a "/" character and a
   numeric string containing the total number of parts in the set. E.g.
   "1/2".

  TPUB
   The 'Publisher' frame simply contains the name of the label or
   publisher.

  TRCK
   The 'Track number/Position in set' frame is a numeric string
   containing the order number of the audio-file on its original
   recording. This may be extended with a "/" character and a numeric
   string containing the total numer of tracks/elements on the original
   recording. E.g. "4/9".

  TRDA
   The 'Recording dates' frame is a intended to be used as complement to
   the "TYER", "TDAT" and "TIME" frames. E.g. "4th-7th June, 12th June"
   in combination with the "TYER" frame.

  TRSN
   The 'Internet radio station name' frame contains the name of the
   internet radio station from which the audio is streamed.

  TRSO
   The 'Internet radio station owner' frame contains the name of the
   owner of the internet radio station from which the audio is
   streamed.

  TSIZ
   The 'Size' frame contains the size of the audiofile in bytes,
   excluding the ID3v2 tag, represented as a numeric string.

  TSRC
   The 'ISRC' frame should contain the International Standard Recording
   Code [ISRC] (12 characters).

  TSSE
   The 'Software/Hardware and settings used for encoding' frame
   includes the used audio encoder and its settings when the file was
   encoded. Hardware refers to hardware encoders, not the computer on
   which a program was run.

  TYER
   The 'Year' frame is a numeric string with a year of the recording.
   This frames is always four characters long (until the year 10000).


4.2.2.   User defined text information frame

   This frame is intended for one-string text information concerning the
   audiofile in a similar way to the other "T"-frames. The frame body
   consists of a description of the string, represented as a terminated
   string, followed by the actual string. There may be more than one
   "TXXX" frame in each tag, but only one with the same description.

     <Header for 'User defined text information frame', ID: "TXXX">
     Text encoding     $xx
     Description       <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Value             <text string according to encoding>


4.3.   URL link frames

   With these frames dynamic data such as webpages with touring
   information, price information or plain ordinary news can be added to
   the tag. There may only be one URL [URL] link frame of its kind in an
   tag, except when stated otherwise in the frame description. If the
   textstring is followed by a termination ($00 (00)) all the following
   information should be ignored and not be displayed. All URL link
   frame identifiers begins with "W". Only URL link frame identifiers
   begins with "W". All URL link frames have the following format:

     <Header for 'URL link frame', ID: "W000" - "WZZZ", excluding "WXXX"
     described in 4.3.2.>
     URL              <text string>


4.3.1.   URL link frames - details

  WCOM
   The 'Commercial information' frame is a URL pointing at a webpage
   with information such as where the album can be bought. There may be
   more than one "WCOM" frame in a tag, but not with the same content.

  WCOP
   The 'Copyright/Legal information' frame is a URL pointing at a
   webpage where the terms of use and ownership of the file is
   described.

  WOAF
   The 'Official audio file webpage' frame is a URL pointing at a file
   specific webpage.

  WOAR
   The 'Official artist/performer webpage' frame is a URL pointing at
   the artists official webpage. There may be more than one "WOAR" frame
   in a tag if the audio contains more than one performer, but not with
   the same content.

  WOAS
   The 'Official audio source webpage' frame is a URL pointing at the
   official webpage for the source of the audio file, e.g. a movie.

  WORS
   The 'Official internet radio station homepage' contains a URL
   pointing at the homepage of the internet radio station.

  WPAY
   The 'Payment' frame is a URL pointing at a webpage that will handle
   the process of paying for this file.

  WPUB
   The 'Publishers official webpage' frame is a URL pointing at the
   official wepage for the publisher.


4.3.2.   User defined URL link frame

   This frame is intended for URL [URL] links concerning the audiofile
   in a similar way to the other "W"-frames. The frame body consists
   of a description of the string, represented as a terminated string,
   followed by the actual URL. The URL is always encoded with ISO-8859-1
   [ISO-8859-1]. There may be more than one "WXXX" frame in each tag,
   but only one with the same description.

     <Header for 'User defined URL link frame', ID: "WXXX">
     Text encoding     $xx
     Description       <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     URL               <text string>


4.4.   Involved people list

   Since there might be a lot of people contributing to an audio file in
   various ways, such as musicians and technicians, the 'Text
   information frames' are often insufficient to list everyone involved
   in a project. The 'Involved people list' is a frame containing the
   names of those involved, and how they were involved. The body simply
   contains a terminated string with the involvement directly followed
   by a terminated string with the involvee followed by a new
   involvement and so on. There may only be one "IPLS" frame in each
   tag.

     <Header for 'Involved people list', ID: "IPLS">
     Text encoding          $xx
     People list strings    <text strings according to encoding>


4.5.   Music CD identifier

   This frame is intended for music that comes from a CD, so that the CD
   can be identified in databases such as the CDDB [CDDB]. The frame
   consists of a binary dump of the Table Of Contents, TOC, from the CD,
   which is a header of 4 bytes and then 8 bytes/track on the CD plus 8
   bytes for the 'lead out' making a maximum of 804 bytes. The offset to
   the beginning of every track on the CD should be described with a
   four bytes absolute CD-frame address per track, and not with absolute
   time. This frame requires a present and valid "TRCK" frame, even if
   the CD's only got one track. There may only be one "MCDI" frame in
   each tag.

     <Header for 'Music CD identifier', ID: "MCDI">
     CD TOC                <binary data>


4.6.   Event timing codes

   This frame allows synchronisation with key events in a song or sound.
   The header is:

     <Header for 'Event timing codes', ID: "ETCO">
     Time stamp format    $xx

   Where time stamp format is:

     $01  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using MPEG [MPEG] frames as unit
     $02  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using milliseconds as unit

   Abolute time means that every stamp contains the time from the
   beginning of the file.

   Followed by a list of key events in the following format:

     Type of event   $xx
     Time stamp      $xx (xx ...)

   The 'Time stamp' is set to zero if directly at the beginning of the
   sound or after the previous event. All events should be sorted in
   chronological order. The type of event is as follows:

     $00  padding (has no meaning)
     $01  end of initial silence
     $02  intro start
     $03  mainpart start
     $04  outro start
     $05  outro end
     $06  verse start
     $07  refrain start
     $08  interlude start
     $09  theme start
     $0A  variation start
     $0B  key change
     $0C  time change
     $0D  momentary unwanted noise (Snap, Crackle & Pop)
     $0E  sustained noise
     $0F  sustained noise end
     $10  intro end
     $11  mainpart end
     $12  verse end
     $13  refrain end
     $14  theme end

     $15-$DF  reserved for future use

     $E0-$EF  not predefined sync 0-F

     $F0-$FC  reserved for future use

     $FD  audio end (start of silence)
     $FE  audio file ends
     $FF  one more byte of events follows (all the following bytes with
          the value $FF have the same function)

   Terminating the start events such as "intro start" is not required.
   The 'Not predefined sync's ($E0-EF) are for user events. You might
   want to synchronise your music to something, like setting of an
   explosion on-stage, turning on your screensaver etc.

   There may only be one "ETCO" frame in each tag.


4.7.   MPEG location lookup table

   To increase performance and accuracy of jumps within a MPEG [MPEG]
   audio file, frames with timecodes in different locations in the file
   might be useful. The ID3v2 frame includes references that the
   software can use to calculate positions in the file. After the frame
   header is a descriptor of how much the 'frame counter' should
   increase for every reference. If this value is two then the first
   reference points out the second frame, the 2nd reference the 4th
   frame, the 3rd reference the 6th frame etc. In a similar way the
   'bytes between reference' and 'milliseconds between reference' points
   out bytes and milliseconds respectively.

   Each reference consists of two parts; a certain number of bits, as
   defined in 'bits for bytes deviation', that describes the difference
   between what is said in 'bytes between reference' and the reality and
   a certain number of bits, as defined in 'bits for milliseconds
   deviation', that describes the difference between what is said in
   'milliseconds between reference' and the reality. The number of bits
   in every reference, i.e. 'bits for bytes deviation'+'bits for

   milliseconds deviation', must be a multiple of four. There may only
   be one "MLLT" frame in each tag.

     <Header for 'Location lookup table', ID: "MLLT">
     MPEG frames between reference  $xx xx
     Bytes between reference        $xx xx xx
     Milliseconds between reference $xx xx xx
     Bits for bytes deviation       $xx
     Bits for milliseconds dev.     $xx

   Then for every reference the following data is included;

     Deviation in bytes         %xxx....
     Deviation in milliseconds  %xxx....


4.8.   Synchronised tempo codes

   For a more accurate description of the tempo of a musical piece this
   frame might be used. After the header follows one byte describing
   which time stamp format should be used. Then follows one or more
   tempo codes. Each tempo code consists of one tempo part and one time
   part. The tempo is in BPM described with one or two bytes. If the
   first byte has the value $FF, one more byte follows, which is added
   to the first giving a range from 2 - 510 BPM, since $00 and $01 is
   reserved. $00 is used to describe a beat-free time period, which is
   not the same as a music-free time period. $01 is used to indicate one
   single beat-stroke followed by a beat-free period.

   The tempo descriptor is followed by a time stamp. Every time the
   tempo in the music changes, a tempo descriptor may indicate this for
   the player. All tempo descriptors should be sorted in chronological
   order. The first beat-stroke in a time-period is at the same time as
   the beat description occurs. There may only be one "SYTC" frame in
   each tag.

     <Header for 'Synchronised tempo codes', ID: "SYTC">
     Time stamp format   $xx
     Tempo data          <binary data>

   Where time stamp format is:

     $01  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using MPEG [MPEG] frames as unit
     $02  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using milliseconds as unit

   Abolute time means that every stamp contains the time from the
   beginning of the file.


4.9.   Unsychronised lyrics/text transcription

   This frame contains the lyrics of the song or a text transcription of
   other vocal activities. The head includes an encoding descriptor and
   a content descriptor. The body consists of the actual text. The
   'Content descriptor' is a terminated string. If no descriptor is
   entered, 'Content descriptor' is $00 (00) only. Newline characters
   are allowed in the text. There may be more than one 'Unsynchronised
   lyrics/text transcription' frame in each tag, but only one with the
   same language and content descriptor.

     <Header for 'Unsynchronised lyrics/text transcription', ID: "USLT">
     Text encoding        $xx
     Language             $xx xx xx
     Content descriptor   <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Lyrics/text          <full text string according to encoding>


4.10.   Synchronised lyrics/text

   This is another way of incorporating the words, said or sung lyrics,
   in the audio file as text, this time, however, in sync with the
   audio. It might also be used to describing events e.g. occurring on a
   stage or on the screen in sync with the audio. The header includes a
   content descriptor, represented with as terminated textstring. If no
   descriptor is entered, 'Content descriptor' is $00 (00) only.

     <Header for 'Synchronised lyrics/text', ID: "SYLT">
     Text encoding        $xx
     Language             $xx xx xx
     Time stamp format    $xx
     Content type         $xx
     Content descriptor   <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)


   Encoding:   $00  ISO-8859-1 [ISO-8859-1] character set is used => $00
                    is sync identifier.
               $01  Unicode [UNICODE] character set is used => $00 00 is
                    sync identifier.

   Content type:   $00 is other
                   $01 is lyrics
                   $02 is text transcription
                   $03 is movement/part name (e.g. "Adagio")
                   $04 is events (e.g. "Don Quijote enters the stage")
                   $05 is chord (e.g. "Bb F Fsus")
                   $06 is trivia/'pop up' information

   Time stamp format is:

     $01  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using MPEG [MPEG] frames as unit
     $02  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using milliseconds as unit

   Abolute time means that every stamp contains the time from the
   beginning of the file.

   The text that follows the frame header differs from that of the
   unsynchronised lyrics/text transcription in one major way. Each
   syllable (or whatever size of text is considered to be convenient by
   the encoder) is a null terminated string followed by a time stamp
   denoting where in the sound file it belongs. Each sync thus has the
   following structure:

     Terminated text to be synced (typically a syllable)
     Sync identifier (terminator to above string)   $00 (00)
     Time stamp                                     $xx (xx ...)

   The 'time stamp' is set to zero or the whole sync is omitted if
   located directly at the beginning of the sound. All time stamps
   should be sorted in chronological order. The sync can be considered
   as a validator of the subsequent string.

   Newline ($0A) characters are allowed in all "SYLT" frames and should
   be used after every entry (name, event etc.) in a frame with the
   content type $03 - $04.

   A few considerations regarding whitespace characters: Whitespace
   separating words should mark the beginning of a new word, thus
   occurring in front of the first syllable of a new word. This is also
   valid for new line characters. A syllable followed by a comma should
   not be broken apart with a sync (both the syllable and the comma
   should be before the sync).

   An example: The "USLT" passage

     "Strangers in the night" $0A "Exchanging glances"

   would be "SYLT" encoded as:

     "Strang" $00 xx xx "ers" $00 xx xx " in" $00 xx xx " the" $00 xx xx
     " night" $00 xx xx 0A "Ex" $00 xx xx "chang" $00 xx xx "ing" $00 xx
     xx "glan" $00 xx xx "ces" $00 xx xx

   There may be more than one "SYLT" frame in each tag, but only one
   with the same language and content descriptor.


4.11.   Comments

   This frame is indended for any kind of full text information that
   does not fit in any other frame. It consists of a frame header
   followed by encoding, language and content descriptors and is ended
   with the actual comment as a text string. Newline characters are
   allowed in the comment text string. There may be more than one
   comment frame in each tag, but only one with the same language and
   content descriptor.

     <Header for 'Comment', ID: "COMM">
     Text encoding          $xx
     Language               $xx xx xx
     Short content descrip. <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     The actual text        <full text string according to encoding>


4.12.   Relative volume adjustment

   This is a more subjective function than the previous ones. It allows
   the user to say how much he wants to increase/decrease the volume on
   each channel while the file is played. The purpose is to be able to
   align all files to a reference volume, so that you don't have to
   change the volume constantly. This frame may also be used to balance
   adjust the audio. If the volume peak levels are known then this could
   be described with the 'Peak volume right' and 'Peak volume left'
   field. If Peakvolume is not known these fields could be left zeroed
   or, if no other data follows, be completely omitted. There may only
   be one "RVAD" frame in each tag.

     <Header for 'Relative volume adjustment', ID: "RVAD">
     Increment/decrement           %00xxxxxx
     Bits used for volume descr.   $xx
     Relative volume change, right $xx xx (xx ...)
     Relative volume change, left  $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume right             $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume left              $xx xx (xx ...)

   In the increment/decrement field bit 0 is used to indicate the right
   channel and bit 1 is used to indicate the left channel. 1 is
   increment and 0 is decrement.

   The 'bits used for volume description' field is normally $10 (16
   bits) for MPEG 2 layer I, II and III [MPEG] and MPEG 2.5. This value
   may not be $00. The volume is always represented with whole bytes,
   padded in the beginning (highest bits) when 'bits used for volume
   description' is not a multiple of eight.

   This datablock is then optionally followed by a volume definition for
   the left and right back channels. If this information is appended to
   the frame the first two channels will be treated as front channels.
   In the increment/decrement field bit 2 is used to indicate the right
   back channel and bit 3 for the left back channel.

     Relative volume change, right back $xx xx (xx ...)
     Relative volume change, left back  $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume right back             $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume left back              $xx xx (xx ...)

   If the center channel adjustment is present the following is appended
   to the existing frame, after the left and right back channels. The
   center channel is represented by bit 4 in the increase/decrease
   field.

     Relative volume change, center  $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume center              $xx xx (xx ...)

   If the bass channel adjustment is present the following is appended
   to the existing frame, after the center channel. The bass channel is
   represented by bit 5 in the increase/decrease field.

     Relative volume change, bass  $xx xx (xx ...)
     Peak volume bass              $xx xx (xx ...)


4.13.   Equalisation

   This is another subjective, alignment frame. It allows the user to
   predefine an equalisation curve within the audio file. There may only
   be one "EQUA" frame in each tag.

     <Header of 'Equalisation', ID: "EQUA">
     Adjustment bits    $xx

   The 'adjustment bits' field defines the number of bits used for
   representation of the adjustment. This is normally $10 (16 bits) for
   MPEG 2 layer I, II and III [MPEG] and MPEG 2.5. This value may not be
   $00.

   This is followed by 2 bytes + ('adjustment bits' rounded up to the
   nearest byte) for every equalisation band in the following format,
   giving a frequency range of 0 - 32767Hz:

     Increment/decrement   %x (MSB of the Frequency)
     Frequency             (lower 15 bits)
     Adjustment            $xx (xx ...)

   The increment/decrement bit is 1 for increment and 0 for decrement.
   The equalisation bands should be ordered increasingly with reference
   to frequency. All frequencies don't have to be declared. The
   equalisation curve in the reading software should be interpolated
   between the values in this frame. Three equal adjustments for three
   subsequent frequencies. A frequency should only be described once in
   the frame.


4.14.   Reverb

   Yet another subjective one. You may here adjust echoes of different
   kinds. Reverb left/right is the delay between every bounce in ms.
   Reverb bounces left/right is the number of bounces that should be
   made. $FF equals an infinite number of bounces. Feedback is the
   amount of volume that should be returned to the next echo bounce. $00
   is 0%, $FF is 100%. If this value were $7F, there would be 50% volume
   reduction on the first bounce, 50% of that on the second and so on.
   Left to left means the sound from the left bounce to be played in the
   left speaker, while left to right means sound from the left bounce to
   be played in the right speaker.

   'Premix left to right' is the amount of left sound to be mixed in the
   right before any reverb is applied, where $00 id 0% and $FF is 100%.
   'Premix right to left' does the same thing, but right to left.
   Setting both premix to $FF would result in a mono output (if the
   reverb is applied symmetric). There may only be one "RVRB" frame in
   each tag.

     <Header for 'Reverb', ID: "RVRB">
     Reverb left (ms)                 $xx xx
     Reverb right (ms)                $xx xx
     Reverb bounces, left             $xx
     Reverb bounces, right            $xx
     Reverb feedback, left to left    $xx
     Reverb feedback, left to right   $xx
     Reverb feedback, right to right  $xx
     Reverb feedback, right to left   $xx
     Premix left to right             $xx
     Premix right to left             $xx


4.15.   Attached picture

   This frame contains a picture directly related to the audio file.
   Image format is the MIME type and subtype [MIME] for the image. In
   the event that the MIME media type name is omitted, "image/" will be
   implied. The "image/png" [PNG] or "image/jpeg" [JFIF] picture format
   should be used when interoperability is wanted. Description is a
   short description of the picture, represented as a terminated
   textstring. The description has a maximum length of 64 characters,
   but may be empty. There may be several pictures attached to one file,
   each in their individual "APIC" frame, but only one with the same
   content descriptor. There may only be one picture with the picture
   type declared as picture type $01 and $02 respectively. There is the
   possibility to put only a link to the image file by using the 'MIME
   type' "-->" and having a complete URL [URL] instead of picture data.
   The use of linked files should however be used sparingly since there
   is the risk of separation of files.

     <Header for 'Attached picture', ID: "APIC">
     Text encoding      $xx
     MIME type          <text string> $00
     Picture type       $xx
     Description        <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Picture data       <binary data>


   Picture type:  $00  Other
                  $01  32x32 pixels 'file icon' (PNG only)
                  $02  Other file icon
                  $03  Cover (front)
                  $04  Cover (back)
                  $05  Leaflet page
                  $06  Media (e.g. lable side of CD)
                  $07  Lead artist/lead performer/soloist
                  $08  Artist/performer
                  $09  Conductor
                  $0A  Band/Orchestra
                  $0B  Composer
                  $0C  Lyricist/text writer
                  $0D  Recording Location
                  $0E  During recording
                  $0F  During performance
                  $10  Movie/video screen capture
                  $11  A bright coloured fish
                  $12  Illustration
                  $13  Band/artist logotype
                  $14  Publisher/Studio logotype


4.16.   General encapsulated object

   In this frame any type of file can be encapsulated. After the header,
   'Frame size' and 'Encoding' follows 'MIME type' [MIME] represented as
   as a terminated string encoded with ISO 8859-1 [ISO-8859-1]. The
   filename is case sensitive and is encoded as 'Encoding'. Then follows
   a content description as terminated string, encoded as 'Encoding'.
   The last thing in the frame is the actual object. The first two
   strings may be omitted, leaving only their terminations. MIME type is
   always an ISO-8859-1 text string. There may be more than one "GEOB"
   frame in each tag, but only one with the same content descriptor.

     <Header for 'General encapsulated object', ID: "GEOB">
     Text encoding          $xx
     MIME type              <text string> $00
     Filename               <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Content description    <text string according to enc�ding> $00 (00)
     Encapsulated object    <binary data>


4.17.   Play counter

   This is simply a counter of the number of times a file has been
   played. The value is increased by one every time the file begins to
   play. There may only be one "PCNT" frame in each tag. When the
   counter reaches all one's, one byte is inserted in front of the
   counter thus making the counter eight bits bigger.  The counter must
   be at least 32-bits long to begin with.

     <Header for 'Play counter', ID: "PCNT">
     Counter        $xx xx xx xx (xx ...)


4.18.   Popularimeter

   The purpose of this frame is to specify how good an audio file is.
   Many interesting applications could be found to this frame such as a
   playlist that features better audiofiles more often than others or it
   could be used to profile a person's taste and find other 'good' files
   by comparing people's profiles. The frame is very simple. It contains
   the email address to the user, one rating byte and a four byte play
   counter, intended to be increased with one for every time the file is
   played. The email is a terminated string. The rating is 1-255 where
   1 is worst and 255 is best. 0 is unknown. If no personal counter is
   wanted it may be omitted.  When the counter reaches all one's, one
   byte is inserted in front of the counter thus making the counter
   eight bits bigger in the same away as the play counter ("PCNT").
   There may be more than one "POPM" frame in each tag, but only one
   with the same email address.

     <Header for 'Popularimeter', ID: "POPM">
     Email to user   <text string> $00
     Rating          $xx
     Counter         $xx xx xx xx (xx ...)


4.19.   Recommended buffer size

   Sometimes the server from which a audio file is streamed is aware of
   transmission or coding problems resulting in interruptions in the
   audio stream. In these cases, the size of the buffer can be
   recommended by the server using this frame. If the 'embedded info
   flag' is true (1) then this indicates that an ID3 tag with the
   maximum size described in 'Buffer size' may occur in the audiostream.
   In such case the tag should reside between two MPEG [MPEG] frames, if
   the audio is MPEG encoded. If the position of the next tag is known,
   'offset to next tag' may be used. The offset is calculated from the
   end of tag in which this frame resides to the first byte of the
   header in the next. This field may be omitted. Embedded tags are
   generally not recommended since this could render unpredictable
   behaviour from present software/hardware.

   For applications like streaming audio it might be an idea to embed
   tags into the audio stream though. If the clients connects to
   individual connections like HTTP and there is a possibility to begin
   every transmission with a tag, then this tag should include a
   'recommended buffer size' frame. If the client is connected to a
   arbitrary point in the stream, such as radio or multicast, then the
   'recommended buffer size' frame should be included in every tag.
   Every tag that is picked up after the initial/first tag is to be
   considered as an update of the previous one. E.g. if there is a
   "TIT2" frame in the first received tag and one in the second tag,
   then the first should be 'replaced' with the second.

   The 'Buffer size' should be kept to a minimum. There may only be one
   "RBUF" frame in each tag.

     <Header for 'Recommended buffer size', ID: "RBUF">
     Buffer size               $xx xx xx
     Embedded info flag        %0000000x
     Offset to next tag        $xx xx xx xx


4.20.   Audio encryption

   This frame indicates if the actual audio stream is encrypted, and by
   whom. Since standardisation of such encrypion scheme is beyond this
   document, all "AENC" frames begin with a terminated string with a
   URL containing an email address, or a link to a location where an
   email address can be found, that belongs to the organisation
   responsible for this specific encrypted audio file. Questions
   regarding the encrypted audio should be sent to the email address
   specified. If a $00 is found directly after the 'Frame size' and the
   audiofile indeed is encrypted, the whole file may be considered
   useless.

   After the 'Owner identifier', a pointer to an unencrypted part of the
   audio can be specified. The 'Preview start' and 'Preview length' is
   described in frames. If no part is unencrypted, these fields should
   be left zeroed. After the 'preview length' field follows optionally a
   datablock required for decryption of the audio. There may be more
   than one "AENC" frames in a tag, but only one with the same 'Owner
   identifier'.

     <Header for 'Audio encryption', ID: "AENC">
     Owner identifier   <text string> $00
     Preview start      $xx xx
     Preview length     $xx xx
     Encryption info    <binary data>


4.21.   Linked information

   To keep space waste as low as possible this frame may be used to link
   information from another ID3v2 tag that might reside in another audio
   file or alone in a binary file. It is recommended that this method is
   only used when the files are stored on a CD-ROM or other
   circumstances when the risk of file seperation is low. The frame
   contains a frame identifier, which is the frame that should be linked
   into this tag, a URL [URL] field, where a reference to the file where
   the frame is given, and additional ID data, if needed. Data should be
   retrieved from the first tag found in the file to which this link
   points. There may be more than one "LINK" frame in a tag, but only
   one with the same contents. A linked frame is to be considered as
   part of the tag and has the same restrictions as if it was a physical
   part of the tag (i.e. only one "RVRB" frame allowed, whether it's
   linked or not).

     <Header for 'Linked information', ID: "LINK">
     Frame identifier        $xx xx xx
     URL                     <text string> $00
     ID and additional data  <text string(s)>

   Frames that may be linked and need no additional data are "IPLS",
   "MCID", "ETCO", "MLLT", "SYTC", "RVAD", "EQUA", "RVRB", "RBUF", the
   text information frames and the URL link frames.

   The "TXXX", "APIC", "GEOB" and "AENC" frames may be linked with
   the content descriptor as additional ID data.

   The "COMM", "SYLT" and "USLT" frames may be linked with three bytes
   of language descriptor directly followed by a content descriptor as
   additional ID data.


4.22.   Position synchronisation frame

   This frame delivers information to the listener of how far into the
   audio stream he picked up; in effect, it states the time offset of
   the first frame in the stream. The frame layout is:

     <Head for 'Position synchronisation', ID: "POSS">
     Time stamp format         $xx
     Position                  $xx (xx ...)

   Where time stamp format is:

     $01  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using MPEG frames as unit
     $02  Absolute time, 32 bit sized, using milliseconds as unit

   and position is where in the audio the listener starts to receive,
   i.e. the beginning of the next frame. If this frame is used in the
   beginning of a file the value is always 0. There may only be one
   "POSS" frame in each tag.


4.23.   Terms of use frame

   This frame contains a brief description of the terms of use and
   ownership of the file. More detailed information concerning the legal
   terms might be available through the "WCOP" frame. Newlines are
   allowed in the text. There may only be one "USER" frame in a tag.

     <Header for 'Terms of use frame', ID: "USER">
     Text encoding        $xx
     Language             $xx xx xx
     The actual text      <text string according to encoding>


4.24.   Ownership frame

   The ownership frame might be used as a reminder of a made transaction
   or, if signed, as proof. Note that the "USER" and "TOWN" frames are
   good to use in conjunction with this one. The frame begins, after the
   frame ID, size and encoding fields, with a 'price payed' field. The
   first three characters of this field contains the currency used for
   the transaction, encoded according to ISO 4217 [ISO-4217] alphabetic
   currency code. Concatenated to this is the actual price payed, as a
   numerical string using "." as the decimal separator. Next is an 8
   character date string (YYYYMMDD) followed by a string with the name
   of the seller as the last field in the frame. There may only be one
   "OWNE" frame in a tag.

     <Header for 'Ownership frame', ID: "OWNE">
     Text encoding     $xx
     Price payed       <text string> $00
     Date of purch.    <text string>
     Seller            <text string according to encoding>


4.25.   Commercial frame

   This frame enables several competing offers in the same tag by
   bundling all needed information. That makes this frame rather complex
   but it's an easier solution than if one tries to achieve the same
   result with several frames. The frame begins, after the frame ID,
   size and encoding fields, with a price string field. A price is
   constructed by one three character currency code, encoded according
   to ISO 4217 [ISO-4217] alphabetic currency code, followed by a
   numerical value where "." is used as decimal seperator. In the price
   string several prices may be concatenated, seperated by a "/"
   character, but there may only be one currency of each type.

   The price string is followed by an 8 character date string in the
   format YYYYMMDD, describing for how long the price is valid. After
   that is a contact URL, with which the user can contact the seller,
   followed by a one byte 'received as' field. It describes how the
   audio is delivered when bought according to the following list:

        $00  Other
        $01  Standard CD album with other songs
        $02  Compressed audio on CD
        $03  File over the Internet
        $04  Stream over the Internet
        $05  As note sheets
        $06  As note sheets in a book with other sheets
        $07  Music on other media
        $08  Non-musical merchandise

   Next follows a terminated string with the name of the seller followed
   by a terminated string with a short description of the product. The
   last thing is the ability to include a company logotype. The first of
   them is the 'Picture MIME type' field containing information about
   which picture format is used. In the event that the MIME media type
   name is omitted, "image/" will be implied. Currently only "image/png"
   and "image/jpeg" are allowed. This format string is followed by the
   binary picture data. This two last fields may be omitted if no
   picture is to attach.

     <Header for 'Commercial frame', ID: "COMR">
     Text encoding      $xx
     Price string       <text string> $00
     Valid until        <text string>
     Contact URL        <text string> $00
     Received as        $xx
     Name of seller     <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Description        <text string according to encoding> $00 (00)
     Picture MIME type  <string> $00
     Seller logo        <binary data>


4.26.   Encryption method registration

   To identify with which method a frame has been encrypted the
   encryption method must be registered in the tag with this frame. The
   'Owner identifier' is a null-terminated string with a URL [URL]
   containing an email address, or a link to a location where an email
   address can be found, that belongs to the organisation responsible
   for this specific encryption method. Questions regarding the
   encryption method should be sent to the indicated email address. The
   'Method symbol' contains a value that is associated with this method
   throughout the whole tag. Values below $80 are reserved. The 'Method
   symbol' may optionally be followed by encryption specific data. There
   may be several "ENCR" frames in a tag but only one containing the
   same symbol and only one containing the same owner identifier. The
   method must be used somewhere in the tag. See section 3.3.1, flag j
   for more information.

     <Header for 'Encryption method registration', ID: "ENCR">
     Owner identifier    <text string> $00
     Method symbol       $xx
     Encryption data     <binary data>


4.27.   Group identification registration

   This frame enables grouping of otherwise unrelated frames. This can
   be used when some frames are to be signed. To identify which frames
   belongs to a set of frames a group identifier must be registered in
   the tag with this frame. The 'Owner identifier' is a null-terminated
   string with a URL [URL] containing an email address, or a link to a
   location where an email address can be found, that belongs to the
   organisation responsible for this grouping. Questions regarding the
   grouping should be sent to the indicated email address. The 'Group
   symbol' contains a value that associates the frame with this group
   throughout the whole tag. Values below $80 are reserved. The 'Group
   symbol' may optionally be followed by some group specific data, e.g.
   a digital signature. There may be several "GRID" frames in a tag but
   only one containing the same symbol and only one containing the same
   owner identifier. The group symbol must be used somewhere in the tag.
   See section 3.3.1, flag j for more information.

     <Header for 'Group ID registration', ID: "GRID">
     Owner identifier      <text string> $00
     Group symbol          $xx
         Group dependent data  <binary data>


4.28.   Private frame

   This frame is used to contain information from a software producer
   that its program uses and does not fit into the other frames. The
   frame consists of an 'Owner identifier' string and the binary data.
   The 'Owner identifier' is a null-terminated string with a URL [URL]
   containing an email address, or a link to a location where an email
   address can be found, that belongs to the organisation responsible
   for the frame. Questions regarding the frame should be sent to the
   indicated email address. The tag may contain more than one "PRIV"
   frame but only with different contents. It is recommended to keep the
   number of "PRIV" frames as low as possible.

     <Header for 'Private frame', ID: "PRIV">
     Owner identifier      <text string> $00
         The private data      <binary data>


5.   The 'unsynchronisation scheme'

   The only purpose of the 'unsynchronisation scheme' is to make the
   ID3v2 tag as compatible as possible with existing software. There is
   no use in 'unsynchronising' tags if the file is only to be processed
   by new software. Unsynchronisation may only be made with MPEG 2 layer
   I, II and III and MPEG 2.5 files.

   Whenever a false synchronisation is found within the tag, one zeroed
   byte is inserted after the first false synchronisation byte. The
   format of a correct sync that should be altered by ID3 encoders is as
   follows:

         %11111111 111xxxxx

   And should be replaced with:

         %11111111 00000000 111xxxxx

   This has the side effect that all $FF 00 combinations have to be
   altered, so they won't be affected by the decoding process. Therefore
   all the $FF 00 combinations have to be replaced with the $FF 00 00
   combination during the unsynchronisation.

   To indicate usage of the unsynchronisation, the first bit in 'ID3
   flags' should be set. This bit should only be set if the tag
   contains a, now corrected, false synchronisation. The bit should
   only be clear if the tag does not contain any false synchronisations.

   Do bear in mind, that if a compression scheme is used by the encoder,
   the unsynchronisation scheme should be applied *afterwards*. When
   decoding a compressed, 'unsynchronised' file, the 'unsynchronisation
   scheme' should be parsed first, decompression afterwards.

   If the last byte in the tag is $FF, and there is a need to eliminate
   false synchronisations in the tag, at least one byte of padding
   should be added.


6.   Copyright

   Copyright (C) Martin Nilsson 1998. All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that a reference to this document is included on all
   such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may
   not be modified in any way and reissued as the original document.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE AUTHORS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
   IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
   THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


7.   References

   [CDDB] Compact Disc Data Base

      <url:http://www.cddb.com>

   [ID3v2] Martin Nilsson, "ID3v2 informal standard".

      <url:http://www.id3.org/id3v2-00.txt>

   [ISO-639-2] ISO/FDIS 639-2.
   Codes for the representation of names of languages, Part 2: Alpha-3
   code. Technical committee / subcommittee: TC 37 / SC 2

   [ISO-4217] ISO 4217:1995.
   Codes for the representation of currencies and funds.
   Technical committee / subcommittee: TC 68

   [ISO-8859-1] ISO/IEC DIS 8859-1.
   8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets, Part 1: Latin
   alphabet No. 1. Technical committee / subcommittee: JTC 1 / SC 2

   [ISRC] ISO 3901:1986
   International Standard Recording Code (ISRC).
   Technical committee / subcommittee: TC 46 / SC 9

   [JFIF] JPEG File Interchange Format, version 1.02

      <url:http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif.txt>

   [MIME] Freed, N.  and N. Borenstein,  "Multipurpose Internet Mail
   Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies",
   RFC 2045, November 1996.

      <url:ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2045.txt>

   [MPEG] ISO/IEC 11172-3:1993.
   Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage
   media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s, Part 3: Audio.
   Technical committee / subcommittee: JTC 1 / SC 29
    and
   ISO/IEC 13818-3:1995
   Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information,
   Part 3: Audio.
   Technical committee / subcommittee: JTC 1 / SC 29
    and
   ISO/IEC DIS 13818-3
   Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information,
   Part 3: Audio (Revision of ISO/IEC 13818-3:1995)


   [PNG] Portable Network Graphics, version 1.0

      <url:http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-png-multi.html>

   [UNICODE] ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993.
   Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS), Part 1:
   Architecture and Basic Multilingual Plane.
   Technical committee / subcommittee: JTC 1 / SC 2

      <url:http://www.unicode.org>

   [URL] T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter & M. McCahill, "Uniform Resource
   Locators (URL).", RFC 1738, December 1994.

      <url:ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1738.txt>

   [ZLIB] P. Deutsch, Aladdin Enterprises & J-L. Gailly, "ZLIB
   Compressed
   Data Format Specification version 3.3", RFC 1950, May 1996.

      <url:ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1950.txt>


8.   Appendix


A.   Appendix A - Genre List from ID3v1

   The following genres is defined in ID3v1

      0.Blues
      1.Classic Rock
      2.Country
      3.Dance
      4.Disco
      5.Funk
      6.Grunge
      7.Hip-Hop
      8.Jazz
      9.Metal
     10.New Age
     11.Oldies
     12.Other
     13.Pop
     14.R&B
     15.Rap
     16.Reggae
     17.Rock
     18.Techno
     19.Industrial
     20.Alternative
     21.Ska
     22.Death Metal
     23.Pranks
     24.Soundtrack
     25.Euro-Techno
     26.Ambient
     27.Trip-Hop
     28.Vocal
     29.Jazz+Funk
     30.Fusion
     31.Trance
     32.Classical
     33.Instrumental
     34.Acid
     35.House
     36.Game
     37.Sound Clip
     38.Gospel
     39.Noise
     40.AlternRock
     41.Bass
     42.Soul
     43.Punk
     44.Space
     45.Meditative
     46.Instrumental Pop
     47.Instrumental Rock
     48.Ethnic
     49.Gothic
     50.Darkwave
     51.Techno-Industrial
     52.Electronic
     53.Pop-Folk
     54.Eurodance
     55.Dream
     56.Southern Rock
     57.Comedy
     58.Cult
     59.Gangsta
     60.Top 40
     61.Christian Rap
     62.Pop/Funk
     63.Jungle
     64.Native American
     65.Cabaret
     66.New Wave
     67.Psychadelic
     68.Rave
     69.Showtunes
     70.Trailer
     71.Lo-Fi
     72.Tribal
     73.Acid Punk
     74.Acid Jazz
     75.Polka
     76.Retro
     77.Musical
     78.Rock & Roll
     79.Hard Rock

   The following genres are Winamp extensions

     80.Folk
     81.Folk-Rock
     82.National Folk
     83.Swing
     84.Fast Fusion
     85.Bebob
     86.Latin
     87.Revival
     88.Celtic
     89.Bluegrass
     90.Avantgarde
     91.Gothic Rock
     92.Progressive Rock
     93.Psychedelic Rock
     94.Symphonic Rock
     95.Slow Rock
     96.Big Band
     97.Chorus
     98.Easy Listening
     99.Acoustic
    100.Humour
    101.Speech
    102.Chanson
    103.Opera
    104.Chamber Music
    105.Sonata
    106.Symphony
    107.Booty Bass
    108.Primus
    109.Porn Groove
    110.Satire
    111.Slow Jam
    112.Club
    113.Tango
    114.Samba
    115.Folklore
    116.Ballad
    117.Power Ballad
    118.Rhythmic Soul
    119.Freestyle
    120.Duet
    121.Punk Rock
    122.Drum Solo
    123.Acapella
    124.Euro-House
    125.Dance Hall


9.   Author's Address

   Written by

     Martin Nilsson
     Rydsv�gen 246 C. 30
     S-584 34 Link�ping
     Sweden

     Email: nilsson at id3.org


   Edited by

     Dirk Mahoney
     57 Pechey Street
     Chermside Q
     Australia 4032

     Email: dirk at id3.org


     Johan Sundstr�m
     Als�ttersgatan 5 A. 34
     S-584 35 Link�ping
     Sweden

     Email: johan at id3.org

d3v2.3.0 (last edited 2012-10-08 22:15:41 by localhost)

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